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Principals with Agency: Assessing Civilian Deference to the Military

Principals with Agency: Assessing Civilian Deference to the Military

When and why do civilian policymakers defer to military expertise? Although scholars agree that civilian deference to military expertise is important to assess the health of civil-military relations, there is much less agreement over the causes of deference,…

The Human Factor: The Enduring Relevance of Protecting Civilians in Future Wars

The Human Factor: The Enduring Relevance of Protecting Civilians in Future Wars

The U.S. military has shifted from a counterinsurgency “population-centric” approach to an enemy-centric one, focused on destroying an enemy through decisive victory. And yet it should be careful not to cast aside measures to protect civilians as a vestige…

Erosion by Deference: Civilian Control and the Military in Policymaking

Erosion by Deference: Civilian Control and the Military in Policymaking

Delegating policymaking functions to members of the military profession can undermine civilian control in democracies, and yet democratic leaders continue to do just this. So why do leaders of democratic states delegate policymaking responsibilities to the…

Keeping Norms Normal: Ancient Perspectives on Norms in Civil-Military Relations

Keeping Norms Normal: Ancient Perspectives on Norms in Civil-Military Relations

The norms that uphold democratic values are a vital part of a healthy system of civil-military relations, but they are not well understood in the United States today. Ancient political philosophers, however, developed rich analyses of what norms are and how…

From Citizen Soldier to Secular Saint: The Societal Implications of Military Exceptionalism

From Citizen Soldier to Secular Saint: The Societal Implications of Military Exceptionalism

For nearly 40 years, the American public has placed extraordinary trust and confidence in the military, celebrating heroism and service in diverse venues ranging from religious services to theme parks to sporting events. Survey after survey has shown that…