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Oil for Atoms: The 1970s Energy Crisis and Nuclear Proliferation in the Persian Gulf

Oil for Atoms: The 1970s Energy Crisis and Nuclear Proliferation in the Persian Gulf

The 1970s energy crisis, which rocked global markets and caused oil prices to skyrocket, had a number of far-reaching and unexpected consequences, many of which have become the focus of academic study in recent years. However, one topic that has eluded…

China’s Biomedical Data Hacking Threat: Applying Big Data Isn’t as Easy as It Seems

China’s Biomedical Data Hacking Threat: Applying Big Data Isn’t as Easy as It Seems

Concerns have developed in recent years about the acquisition of U.S. biomedical information by Chinese individuals and the Chinese government and how this creates security and economic threats to the United States. And yet, China’s illicit acquisition of…

How Competing Schools of Grand Strategy Shape America’s Nonproliferation Policy Toward Iran

How Competing Schools of Grand Strategy Shape America’s Nonproliferation Policy Toward Iran

America’s policy toward Iran’s nuclear program has shifted over the past two decades from an exclusive reliance on coercive measures to an emphasis on diplomatic measures and then back again to coercion. What explains the different policies that the United…

Everyman His Own Philosopher of History: Notions of Historical Process in the Study and Practice of Foreign Policy

Everyman His Own Philosopher of History: Notions of Historical Process in the Study and Practice of Foreign Policy

The renewed interest in the utility of historical study — sometimes referred to as “applied history” — is a growing trend in both Europe and the United States. But while an invaluable foundation for understanding political, economic, and social issues,…

Disease Outbreak and National Security: Drawing Lessons from the COVID-19 Crisis to Improve Emergency Response

Disease Outbreak and National Security: Drawing Lessons from the COVID-19 Crisis to Improve Emergency Response

In response to the COVID-19 crisis, Presidents Donald Trump and Joe Biden have invoked statutory authorities to obtain medical equipment and stem the spread of the virus. Their actions provide an opportunity to reflect on how the current disaster response…

Countering Hybrid Warfare: Mapping Social Contracts to Reinforce Societal Resiliency in Estonia and Beyond

Countering Hybrid Warfare: Mapping Social Contracts to Reinforce Societal Resiliency in Estonia and Beyond

Kremlin-backed hybrid warfare — a whole-of-society warfare on the political, economic, and social fabric of societies — has put states in the Kremlin’s crosshairs on high alert. These states remain vulnerable to hybrid threats partly because they lack…

The Role of Emotions in Military Strategy

The Role of Emotions in Military Strategy

Emotions are ubiquitous in the conduct of military strategy. Although strategic studies scholarship has increasingly emphasized the importance of emotions, their treatment in the field lacks a clear research focus. This paper offers a basis for thinking about…

Were Drone Strikes Effective? Evaluating the Drone Campaign in Pakistan Through Captured al-Qaeda Documents

Were Drone Strikes Effective? Evaluating the Drone Campaign in Pakistan Through Captured al-Qaeda Documents

At a time when the United States seems likely to rely heavily on targeted killing as an instrument of counter-terrorism,  scholars, policymakers, and other analysts remain divided over its utility. These disagreements have been especially pronounced in…

Not at Any Price: LBJ, Pakistan, and Bargaining in an Asymmetric Intelligence Relationship

Not at Any Price: LBJ, Pakistan, and Bargaining in an Asymmetric Intelligence Relationship

International relations theory focuses largely on acknowledged alliances, and yet secret ties also shape relations among states. U.S.-Pakistani intelligence collaboration in the early Cold War highlights the gaps in our understanding of informal and secret…

Salami Tactics: Faits Accomplis and International Expansion in the Shadow of Major War

Salami Tactics: Faits Accomplis and International Expansion in the Shadow of Major War

Salami tactics offer an attractive option for expansionist powers in the shadow of major war — using repetitive, limited faits accomplis to expand influence while avoiding potential escalation. Despite its long history of colloquial use, however, the term…

Caught Between Giants: Hostage Diplomacy and Negotiation Strategy for Middle Powers

Caught Between Giants: Hostage Diplomacy and Negotiation Strategy for Middle Powers

What is hostage diplomacy, and how can U.S. allies respond to China’s use of this coercive tool of foreign policy? We conceptualize “hostage diplomacy” — the taking of hostages under the guise of law for use as foreign policy leverage — to explain an…

Better Monitoring and Better Spying: The Implications of Emerging Technology for Arms Control

Better Monitoring and Better Spying: The Implications of Emerging Technology for Arms Control

How will emerging technology affect prospects for arms control? Technologies such as small satellites and artificial intelligence (AI) have applications in arms control monitoring and can affect the amount of information collected or the ease of information…