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Keeping Norms Normal: Ancient Perspectives on Norms in Civil-Military Relations

Keeping Norms Normal: Ancient Perspectives on Norms in Civil-Military Relations

The norms that uphold democratic values are a vital part of a healthy system of civil-military relations, but they are not well understood in the United States today. Ancient political philosophers, however, developed rich analyses of what norms are and how…

The Future of Sino-U.S. Proxy War

The Future of Sino-U.S. Proxy War

Strategic thought in both the United States and China has focused on the potential for a Sino-U.S. interstate war and downplayed the odds of a clash in a foreign internal conflict. However, great-power military competition is likely to take the form of proxy…

From Citizen Soldier to Secular Saint: The Societal Implications of Military Exceptionalism

From Citizen Soldier to Secular Saint: The Societal Implications of Military Exceptionalism

For nearly 40 years, the American public has placed extraordinary trust and confidence in the military, celebrating heroism and service in diverse venues ranging from religious services to theme parks to sporting events. Survey after survey has shown that…

The Gulf War’s Afterlife: Dilemmas, Missed Opportunities, and the Post-Cold War Order Undone

The Gulf War’s Afterlife: Dilemmas, Missed Opportunities, and the Post-Cold War Order Undone

The Gulf War is often remembered as a “good war,” a high-tech conflict that quickly and cleanly achieved its objectives. Yet, new archival evidence sheds light on the extended fallout from the war and challenges this neat narrative. The Gulf War left…

What Is a Cyber Warrior? The Emergence of U.S. Military Cyber Expertise, 1967–2018

What Is a Cyber Warrior? The Emergence of U.S. Military Cyber Expertise, 1967–2018

How have military cyber operations, a diverse set of activities that often differ little from civilian cyber security work, achieved the status of “warfighting”? What activities have the greatest warfighting status, what activities have the least, and why?…

Citizens, Suspects, and Enemies: Examining Police Militarization

Citizens, Suspects, and Enemies: Examining Police Militarization

Concern about the increasing militarization of police has grown in recent years. Much of this concern focuses on the material aspects of militarization: the greater use of military equipment and tactics by police officers. While this development deserves…

A Crisis of Diverging Perspectives: U.S.-Russian Relations and the Security Dilemma

A Crisis of Diverging Perspectives: U.S.-Russian Relations and the Security Dilemma

Aspects of the relationship between Russia and the United States can be conceptualized as a security dilemma. Each side perceives a serious threat from the other and takes countermeasures that further provoke insecurity for the adversary. Bilateral ties have…

France’s War in the Sahel and the Evolution of Counter-Insurgency Doctrine

France’s War in the Sahel and the Evolution of Counter-Insurgency Doctrine

Criticism of French military operations in the Sahel region of Africa raises questions about the French army’s heritage of colonial and counter-insurgency (COIN) operations and its relevance today. The French army is heir to practices and doctrines that…

Preparing the Cyber Battlefield: Assessing a Novel Escalation Risk in a Sino-American Crisis

Preparing the Cyber Battlefield: Assessing a Novel Escalation Risk in a Sino-American Crisis

Do cyber capabilities create novel risks of a future political crisis between the United States and China escalating into a conflict? This article outlines one potential pathway for interstate crises to escalate: the use of force in response to adversary…

The Escalation Inversion and Other Oddities of Situational Cyber Stability

The Escalation Inversion and Other Oddities of Situational Cyber Stability

As the United States shifts to a new military strategy of defending forward against adversaries in cyberspace, research into the role of cyber capabilities in crisis stability is especially relevant. This paper introduces the concept of situational cyber…

The Simulation of Scandal: Hack-and-Leak Operations, the Gulf States, and U.S. Politics

The Simulation of Scandal: Hack-and-Leak Operations, the Gulf States, and U.S. Politics

Four hack-and-leak operations in U.S. politics between 2016 and 2019, publicly attributed to the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia, should be seen as the “simulation of scandal" — deliberate attempts to direct moral judgment against their…

Taming the Lawless Void: Tracking the Evolution of International Law Rules for Cyberspace

Taming the Lawless Void: Tracking the Evolution of International Law Rules for Cyberspace

The myth that cyberspace is a legal Wild West has been roundly rejected by states and scholars. As cyberspace norms evolve, states will advocate interpretations of existing international law rules that advance their national interests. In this regard, states…