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Rethinking U.S. Africa Policy Amid Changing Geopolitical Realities

Rethinking U.S. Africa Policy Amid Changing Geopolitical Realities

Since 2020, Africa has seen more political unrest, violent extremism, and democratic reversals than any other region in the world. A wave of coups has washed across the Sahel and West Africa, leaving authoritarians in power in numerous countries. In addition,…

Understanding National Security Strategies Through Time

Understanding National Security Strategies Through Time

Since 1986, Congress has required each president to write a national security strategy. How has this security document changed over the years, and where are the continuities and breaks between administrations? John Chin, Kiron Skinner, and Clay Yoo have mapped…

Why Did the United States Invade Iraq? The Debate at 20 Years

Why Did the United States Invade Iraq? The Debate at 20 Years

Twenty years after the Iraq War began, scholarship on its causes can be usefully divided into the security school and the hegemony school. Security school scholars argue that the main reason the Bush administration decided to invade Iraq was to safeguard the…

Salami Tactics: Faits Accomplis and International Expansion in the Shadow of Major War

Salami Tactics: Faits Accomplis and International Expansion in the Shadow of Major War

Salami tactics offer an attractive option for expansionist powers in the shadow of major war — using repetitive, limited faits accomplis to expand influence while avoiding potential escalation. Despite its long history of colloquial use, however, the term…

Whither the “City Upon a Hill”? Donald Trump, America First, and American Exceptionalism

Whither the “City Upon a Hill”? Donald Trump, America First, and American Exceptionalism

In order to understand Donald Trump’s “America First” agenda, we must examine the master narrative that underpins it. Trump breaks with all modern presidents not just because he challenges the postwar “liberal international order,” but because he…

Sense and Indispensability: American Leadership in an Age of Uncertainty

Sense and Indispensability: American Leadership in an Age of Uncertainty

Former ambassador to Sweden, Azita Raji, proposes a way forward for a renewed and sustainable American foreign policy. This would require a re-examination of America's interests, institutional reforms, and a revival of American ideals. To wit: reflection,…

What Is a Moral Foreign Policy?

What Is a Moral Foreign Policy?

How should we judge the morality of a president's foreign policy? Joseph Nye suggests a rubric that is based on a three-dimensional ethics of intentions, means, and consequences and that draws from realism, cosmopolitanism, and liberalism.

More Significance than Value: Explaining Developments in the Sino-Japanese Contest Over the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands

More Significance than Value: Explaining Developments in the Sino-Japanese Contest Over the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands

The Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands are presently the focus of a dangerous contest between the People’s Republic of China and Japan, one that even now has the potential to spark a military conflict that could draw in the United States. How has this come about?…

The End of the End of History: Reimagining U.S. Foreign Policy for the 21st Century

The End of the End of History: Reimagining U.S. Foreign Policy for the 21st Century

Americans lack a shared vision of what the role of the United States ought to be in the world. It's time for America to start asking itself some tough questions about the future of American leadership and for U.S. leaders to rethink how to persuade the…