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Why Did the United States Invade Iraq? The Debate at 20 Years

Why Did the United States Invade Iraq? The Debate at 20 Years

Twenty years after the Iraq War began, scholarship on its causes can be usefully divided into the security school and the hegemony school. Security school scholars argue that the main reason the Bush administration decided to invade Iraq was to safeguard the…

Sweden, Finland, and the Meaning of Alliance Membership

Sweden, Finland, and the Meaning of Alliance Membership

Rationalist understandings of military alliances argue that a formal treaty underpinning the security relationship is crucial for deepening and rendering more efficient defense cooperation between countries. However, Sweden’s and Finland’s cooperation with…

Just Like Yesterday? New Critiques of the Nuclear Revolution

Just Like Yesterday? New Critiques of the Nuclear Revolution

Four recent books offer compelling political and strategic explanations for why states pursue expansive nuclear and foreign policies. They provide new insights on an enduring question: What are the implications of nuclear weapons for international competition…

Paying the Defense Bill: Financing American and Chinese Geostrategic Competition

Paying the Defense Bill: Financing American and Chinese Geostrategic Competition

In the face of what could be a decades-long competition, the United States and China must consider how they will finance defense spending. Leaders in both states are constrained by an intertemporal dilemma: pay the high political cost of raising taxes today,…

The Organizational Determinants of Military Doctrine: A History of Army Information Operations

The Organizational Determinants of Military Doctrine: A History of Army Information Operations

For the past four decades, the U.S. Army has made repeated attempts to create an enduring doctrinal framework that describes the role of information in conflict, yet these attempts have been largely unsuccessful. What accounts for this struggle? More broadly,…

The Moral Legitimacy of Drone Strikes: How the Public Forms Its Judgments

The Moral Legitimacy of Drone Strikes: How the Public Forms Its Judgments

Scholars often relate how the public views drone strikes to one of three moral norms: soldiers’ battlefield courage, the protection of soldiers, or preventing civilian casualties. But what explains variation in the public’s perceptions of what constitutes…

Stabilization Lessons from the British Empire

Stabilization Lessons from the British Empire

Failures of costly state-building missions in places like South Vietnam and Afghanistan have created a widespread belief that foreign interventions cannot stabilize fragile states. However, a review of the operational principles of British colonialism may…

Correspondence: Fixing the Current System or Moving Toward a Value-Based Globalization?

Correspondence: Fixing the Current System or Moving Toward a Value-Based Globalization?

In this issue’s correspondence section, Mathew Burrows and Robert Manning respond to Aaron Friedberg’s article on the future of globalization, published in Vol 5, Iss 1 of TNSR. Friedberg, in turn, offers his own rebuttal.

Principals with Agency: Assessing Civilian Deference to the Military

Principals with Agency: Assessing Civilian Deference to the Military

When and why do civilian policymakers defer to military expertise? Although scholars agree that civilian deference to military expertise is important to assess the health of civil-military relations, there is much less agreement over the causes of deference,…

What’s Old Is New Again: Cold War Lessons for Countering Disinformation

What’s Old Is New Again: Cold War Lessons for Countering Disinformation

Hostile foreign states are using weaponized information to attack the United States. Russia and China are disseminating disinformation about domestic U.S. race relations and COVID-19 to undermine and discredit the U.S. government. These information warfare…

Technology Acquisition and Arms Control: Thinking Through the Hypersonic Weapons Debate

Technology Acquisition and Arms Control: Thinking Through the Hypersonic Weapons Debate

Debates in the United States about hypersonic weapons today revolve around acquiring hypersonic missiles and pursuing arms control initiatives, but concern about a hypersonic gap is misplaced and indicates a misunderstanding about the strategic trade-offs and…

Oil for Atoms: The 1970s Energy Crisis and Nuclear Proliferation in the Persian Gulf

Oil for Atoms: The 1970s Energy Crisis and Nuclear Proliferation in the Persian Gulf

The 1970s energy crisis, which rocked global markets and caused oil prices to skyrocket, had a number of far-reaching and unexpected consequences, many of which have become the focus of academic study in recent years. However, one topic that has eluded…